To a small sauce pan, set over very low heat, add the heavy cream and rose petals. Allow to simmer, stirring occasionally, for 20-25 minutes.
Meanwhile, to a large saucepan, add the sugars, corn syrup and 2 tablespoons of rose water. Stir just to combine, then set over high heat. Cook, without stirring, until it reaches 285-290 degrees on a candy thermometer.
While the sugar mixture is cooking, drain the cream mixture through a fine sieve to remove the rose petals (there may be a few very small pieces that remain, which is totally fine).
Then, add the cream back to the small saucepan along with the butter and salt. Place the pan on a medium heat burner and cook, stirring every so often, until the butter has melted.
Just as the butter is finished melting, the sugar mixture should be reaching its required temperature of 285-290 degrees. Once it does, remove it from the heat.
Carefully, and slowly, pour in the cream mixture, whisking to combine it (be very careful of this step as the caramel will bubble up and can even pop a bit).
Immediately, place the pan back on high heat and cook, without stirring, until the temperature on your candy thermometer reads 245-250 degrees.
As the caramel mixture is cooking, line an 8”x 8” baking pan with parchment paper, then lightly grease it with cooking spray. Set aside.
Once the caramel has finished cooking, remove the pan from the heat. Quickly and carefully (again, the caramel can bubble up a bit), whisk in the vanilla and 1 teaspoon of rose water.
Immediately pour the mixture into the lined and greased baking pan. Do not scrape the sides or the bottom of the pan, just tip the pan over until the caramel stops drizzling out. Set aside and allow to cool for at least 5 hours, or overnight.
To cut the caramels, remove the block of caramel and parchment paper from the baking pan. Place it on a cutting board, and, using a very large sharp knife, carefully slice it first into long strips that are about ¼” x ½” thick.
Then, cut those strips into 1 ¼” x 1 ½” pieces. Sprinkle with salt flakes, if desired, and wrap in parchment or wax paper squares (I found squares that were approximately 4”x 5” worked best).